The Nile River was the source of life for the ancient Egyptians and so figured prominently in their religious beliefs. The earliest record of a ship under sail is depicted on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200BC. The boats were 25 meters long, two to three meters wide, and sixty centimeters deep which allowed seating for 30 rowers with one to two rudder oars. The imperial navy after Augustus, aside from the occasional conflicts in civil wars, once again was primarily charged with the protection of shipping and deterring piracy. Ancient Egyptian vessels were able to travel up to 80 km a day dependent on the conditions. It was thus identified as the world's oldest intact ship and has been described as "a masterpiece of woodcraft" that could sail today if put into water. The ancient Egyptian navy has a very extensive history almost as old as the nation itself. Egypt has had a Navy since Ancient Egyptian times. The construction of the hull and the rest of the ship was radically different from anything else that they had seen. New York: Robin Inc., 1999. This purpose was always used by the Egyptian from the very start of their civilization to the time of the New Kingdom where they would resupply their troops based in the Levantine region via the sea.[7]. London: Evans Brothers Limited, 1968. [6] A tactic that the Romans used were the use of fireships and combustibles. Operations in Home Waters — The Egyptian Nile 43 7. The Royal Fleet fought Egypt’s enemies, and enforced shipping law on … When sea travel was obtained, the vessels and the wars they were in were depicted in red on pottery of that time period. In 429 AD, the Vandals embarked on ships from southern Gaul and landed in North Africa, where they established their own kingdom. As Roman power waned in the 4th and 5th centuries AD, so went the Roman navy. Ancient Ships: The Ships of Antiquity The Egyptian Galleons . During the reign of Rameses III which was in 1182 BCE to 1151 BCE, a new threat arose to challenge the Egyptians in a different way than what they were used to. Archaeologist Cheryl Ward sets out to recreate the voyage in a full-size replica of one of these ancient ships, sailing it to the mythical land of Punt. A team of experts found a large vessel sunk into the silt which had an unusual semi-circular or crescent shaped hull. Buckinghamshire: Shire Publications, 1991. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_Egyptian_navy&oldid=991433069, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The wooden vessels were similar to those made of reeds but the main difference was the eventual adoption of a single square mast that was fastened to the gunwale. The Khufu ship is a full-size vessel from Ancient Egypt that was hidden into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza. The Guardianreports that the ship was made of “thick planks assembled with tenons”, which are types of joints th… These ships were used to sail the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea, and coastal areas. [14] The Egyptians on their fast and nimble riverine crafts won against the maritime vessels of the Sea People, who are depicted by the Egyptians as ill equipped for ranged combat. One bow was usually decorated with a human skull being crushed by a lion’s head. The combustibles were thrown on board the enemy ships to damage the ship and its personnel. Whenever ships were required to endure longer travels, Egypt often imported cedar wood from Byblos, whom they had good trade relations with. This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 01:18. Egyptian rulers have been sailing during the Early Bronze Age (ca. A ship leaving the Nile Delta would be able to make it to Byblos before needing to refresh its stores. Ancient Egyptian Maritime Operations 39 6. This is exemplified in the Amarna letters where we f… A bas-relief at her temple, in Luxor, shows the extraordinary treasures that were brought back. The Egyptians had used their navy for the first and most important purpose in this manner. Over 3,000 years ago Queen Hatshepsut sent a fleet of ships to the distant land of Punt. Ships were first constructed in a very basic manner in which they used reeds. The vessels would typically put ashore each night and could only carry about a weeks worth of supplies for the 20-50 man crews. After fighting a battle, they laid siege to the city and surrounded it. Our best sources over the type of ships they used and their purposes come from the reliefs from the various religious temples that spread throughout the land. Shortly after these ships were made, arsenals were made to make new ships as well as improve and repair the vessels. While the Egyptians were often a land based population, they quickly proved to master the art of seafaring as they learned its benefits. While the use of navy was not as important to the Egyptians as it may have been to the Greeks or Romans, it still proved its worth during the Thutmoside campaigns and even in defending Egypt under Rameses III. According to these descriptions, supported by modern research by Lionel Casson, the enormous size of the vessel made it … The following ships are presented in the 3 tables hereafter: known ancient maxi-ships; other ancient ships; pm: other galleys; Complete pictures of the details shown above are given hereafter. This movable boarding bridge enabled the Romans to transform naval combat from ramming and sinking to boarding with marines through capturing and plundering the vessels. [4] These ships often had two rudder oars, since built in rudders were not invented at the time. [8] It portrays the ships as platforms from which archers and slingers can pepper down the enemy from. Drawing of Ancient Egyptian ship with a sail. By the mid 5th century, the Vandals were the masters of the sea, and by 476 AD, Rome had fallen completely from power in Western Europe. Archaeologists in Egypt have discovered the wreck of an extremely rare vessel that traveled the Nile around 2,500 years ago, solving an ancient puzzle. Another ... not yet excavated, it is believed to contain a second vessel. This ship is typical of the vessels used during the reign of … The use of ships in Egyptian Warfare is as old as conflict in Egypt itself but there was very little ability for sea travel to be achieved. The slow flowing Nile was ideal for transportation and from earliest times Egyptians built boats for transportation, fishing and enjoyment. The earliest boats in Egypt were made during the time of the Old Kingdom where they were used along the Nile River. Ships of the Gods in Ancient Egypt. The Empire had three different major naval bases. Shaw, Ian. The military situations on the Rhine and the Danube necessitated the construction of several dedicated fleet installations for the provincial fleets, classis Germanica, Pannonia and Moesica, but most were attached to the existing forts of Provincial Legions. It can be said that without the successful efficiency of the Egyptian navy, the Egyptian army would not have been able to campaign as long as it wished, and therefore, Egypt's influence over the Levantine region would have been drastically reduced. The navy enabled Egyptian civilization to continue with its way of life until its ultimate slow decline. The Phoenicians however became the primary mariners of the vessels they made. This purpose probably took place more during the New Kingdom when the situation arose for the Egyptians to disable any threats to their sea. This calculation helps explain the very ancient and close relationship between Byblos and it’s often time master, Egypt. Our best sources over the type of ships they used and their purposes come from the reliefs from the various religious temples that spread throughout the land. They were completely equipped both fore and aft with brave fighters carrying their weapons, and infantry of all the pick of Egypt."[13]. the transportation of troops and supplies to certain areas that required them. [3] Because of the lack of wood, boats were made with bundled papyrus reeds. ANCIENT SHIPS "We of the sea come to know each other quickly: Our love, like our hates, are born of sudden dangers." These ships are called solar ships since they are thought to have been ritually made to the Egyptian Pharaohs after their death to help them to travel to their afterlife world. Rome maintained two large fleets, the Classis Praetoria Misenensis and Classis Praetoria Ravennatis based in the Mediterranean with smaller squadrons operating on the North Sea, Black Sea and along the major rivers running throughout the provinces. The Punic Wars are some of the most notorious wars in history, and the naval vessels and tactics used in all three became a major part of naval military history. The Egyptian navy had four main purposes: The Egyptian landscape is often considered harsh and very difficult to travel through except for the few miles that surround the Nile Valley. Very few boats from Ancient Egypt have survived for archeologists to study. One such example is when Ahmose led a siege against the Hyksos city of Avaris at the end of the 17th and beginning of the 18th Dynasty. Little is left of actual boats. These ships were in no way able to travel in the Red or Mediterranean Sea, and so their purpose was only to navigate through the Nile. Misenum, built by Agrippa in 31 BC, was the main naval base of the Mediterranean, joined by Ravenna, Aleria on Corsica and other temporary ports. In its initial stages this new combat style enabled the Romans to win some overwhelming successes against the Carthaginian fleet, but the added weight of the corvus made their vessels less maneuverable and seaworthy resulting in heavy losses with violent weather conditions. Upon boarding them, most of the crew on the Egyptian ships would arm themselves and fight in close quarter combat through the use of spears, shields, and battle axes. This caused restrictions for the Carthaginian communication forces and forced them to keep strong defensive garrisons in Spain and their home territory. The outcomes of battles between ancient navies have been studied by the military to learn tactics that would help in their conquests. How do we know about the boats of Ancient Egypt? Ancient Egyptian sails were square. Other areas where these ships were found buried are along ancient temples and other worship sites. Thousands of new, high … This is especially noticeable in the reliefs of the Medinet Habu temple that show the great attempted invasion of Egypt by the Sea Peoples. At this stage, this purpose existed mostly in the New Kingdom era, although we are led to believe that it was used during the Second Intermediate Period during the siege of Avaris by Ahmose. Ships and watercraft in ancient Egypt were an important factor in the development of maritime trade and transport throughout the span of the civilization. These ships were 40 meters in length and 6 meters in width and able to carry 300 soldiers. This was caused by a victory that bred confidence and led to the eventual invasion of North Africa. CAIRO, Egypt (AP) _ A fleet of royal ships, said to be ancient Egypt's earliest, has been found buried miles from the Nile, a major discovery that will help penetrate the largely unknown world of Egypt… The traditional naval tactic of ramming wasn't abandoned, but the Roman ships were fitted with a corvus to accommodate their strengths in land combat. They would send soldiers to areas throughout Egypt whose jobs it was to quell rebellions or to repel attackers. When the ships were traveling south, they generally had the wind blowing in their direction and would use a sail. After being reinforced, it was able to carry 300 ton loads up and down the Nile River. Ship size 73 x 24 m, note the size of the persons standing in front of the ship. For this reason, using ships as a means of communication and transportation proved to be very effective. to use as a platform from which archers would fire their arrows upon the enemy that were land or sea-based. Pharaoh Khufu-Cheops importing stones from the Sinaï (ca. Many attempts have been made to elucidate the problems created by a critical examination of the obscure constructional methods employed by the Ancient Egyptians when building sailing craft for use on the Nile and, alternatively, at sea. Related Web Search: Shipbuilding in Ancient Egypt Operations in the South — The Red Sea 73 9. [3], The Achaemenid Empire, also known as the Persian Empire, had primarily a land based military but around 5th century BC, at the time of Cambyses II,[4] the Empire started to develop a navy to allow for expansion. The most famous boat of all is the Khufu ship, restored and preserved in the Giza Solar boat museum on the south side of the Great Pyramid of Giza. Their newly founded sea prowess enabled the Roman legions to land on the coast of North Africa and bring the war out of Italy and into the laps of the Carthaginians. At the same time, Rameses claims that he lured the enemy close to Nile shore where he unleashed upon them hundreds of thousands of arrows. Ships were first constructed in a very basic manner in which they used reeds. OtherEgyptian boats were part of an Egyptiannavy. The ships often had oars to gain even more speed when traveling in either direction. See more ideas about ancient egypt, egypt, ancient. 2450 BC) and Sesostris I (ca. [11] A new people called the Sea Peoples were arriving in the Levantine region and destroying its cities. Cottrell, Leonard. Already the once mighty Hittites were destroyed by these people of mysterious origin and it soon became obvious that Egypt with all of its wealth would be next. Egyptian seafaring ships from the 5th Dynasty 2458-2446 BCE . While naval battles are not often recounted since there was no distinction between the navy and the army in ancient Egypt, we do gather some information every now and then of battles that were fought through the use of ships. [12] Rameses III prepared a mighty fleet and planned to repulse the Sea Peoples in the Nile. Egyptian solar ships are ancient ships which were found close to the Egyptian pyramids sites. The wars with Carthage forced the Romans to adapt to naval operations in order to compete and defend themselves. Remains of Old Kingdom boats were found at Tarkhan and Abydos, and King Khufu's shipis well known and demonstrates best how ships were built during that period. Several Ancient Egyptian solar shipsare still present today. [6], With the final destruction of Carthage, and the end of the Third Punic War in 146 BC, Rome was the master of sea power in the Mediterranean. The record of ancient seafaring and trade as recorded in Egyptian art at Queen Hatshepsut's temple at Deir el-Bahri Circa 1480 BCE. Such ships probably served the pharaoh in his capacity as King of Upper and Lower Egypt during his lifetime, and were buried with him as part of his funerary equipment after his death. A Deeper Understanding of Maritime Egypt 17 4. The scenes carved into a wall of the ancient Egyptian temple at Deir el-Bahri tell of a remarkable sea voyage. One account of the siege comes from a soldier and sailor that fought in the siege named Ahmose son of Ibana. Changing Ship Technologies in Ancient Egypt 27 5. While the early ships that were used to sail the Nile were often made out of reeds, the ocean and seagoing ships were then made out of cedar wood, most probably from the woods of Byblos in present day Lebanon. 1950 BC) sending ships to … Having such fast and maneuverable ships enabled the Egyptians to constantly harass the enemy at a range while at the same time withdraw to safety and attack from a different side. Ships and boats were an important part of the ancient Egyptian's life. In that relief, it portrays the enemy with their tall ships all falling into the Nile and pierced by the arrows that were being fired from the Egyptian ships. Whenever ships were required to endure longer travels, Egypt often imported cedar wood from Byblos, with whom they had good trade relations. Within a couple of decades, the Roman Empire consisted of little more than the city of Rome itself and its original territories in Latium and Central Italy. In fact one of the earliest Egyptian words for a seagoing ship is a "Byblos Ship", which originally defined a class of Egyptian seagoing ships used on the Byblos run; however, by the end of the Old Kingdom, the term had come to include large seagoing ships, whatever their destination. However, through the massive reorganization of the Egyptian military in the New Kingdom and the aggressive foreign policy pursued by the Kings, the navy began to become ever more crucial in maintaining Egyptian power and influence abroad. In his accounts, he states how he was stationed on a ship called the Northern in which he sailed with the Egyptian army towards Avaris. The first dynasty boats found at Abydos were about 25 metres long, two to three met… Vol. At the same time, they could have been as heavy as 70 or 80 tonnes with around 50 rowers.[5]. 5 Ancient Egyptian Solar Ships You Probably’s Didn’t Know Existed The precise function of the solar ships remains debated, although experts say they were a ritual vessel to carry the resurrected king with the sun god Ra across the heavens. It was described by a number of ancient sources, including a lost work by Callixenus of Rhodes and surviving texts by Athenaeus and Plutarch. These ships also had a metal blade in the front to cut enemy ships in half when ramming. [6], The examples and perspective in this article, Learn how and when to remove this template message, "The Achaemenid navy and naval engineering", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ancient_navies_and_vessels&oldid=990809918, Articles with limited geographic scope from April 2014, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 16:52. Tessarakonteres, or simply "forty" was a very large catamaran galley reportedly built in the Hellenistic period by Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt. It is also most visible to us from the temple relief of Medinat Habu in which it portrays the Egyptian Marines on board the ships attempting to board the vessels of the Sea Peoples. 3300-2100 BC), i.a. Ancient Ships: The Ships of Antiquity Ancient Ships in art history: Egyptian Ships in ancient Egypt and Egyptian art Hapshetsut's Expedition to Punt. Queen Hatshepsut's temple 2. The ancient Egyptian navy has a very extensive history almost as old as the nation itself. Robinson, John L. Classical Naval Warfare. While the early ships that were used to sail the Nile were often made out of reeds, the ocean and seagoing ships were then made out of cedar wood, most … The Ancient Egyptian Navy have fought many battles as the Delta battle against the sea people. [6] These fleet were built in several different places such as the coast of Italy and Southern Tuscany. These Egyptian boats were made of either native woods or conifers from Lebanon. [1] The earliest boats in Egypt were made during the time of the Old Kingdom where they were used along the Nile River. The siege of Avaris must have been a combined naval and land based attack since Ahmose son of Ibana claimed to have "fought in the canal against Pezedku of Avaris". The ships that these civilizations created were what many ship designs were based on and allowed the vessels to become better built. The Khufu ship, built for Khufu (King Cheops), was one of the two discovered vessels in 1954 by the Egyptian archaeologist Kamal el-Mallakh. The Egyptian never had a specific Marine unit, but rather it was known that anyone on board is equally capable of both maintaining the ship and fighting at the same time. The Romans lacked the skill of other maritime powers such as the Greeks and Carthaginians and had to resort to technology for advantages. The second was to protect the eastern and southern parts of the Mediterranean Sea. [9] However, the conquest of Carthage also eliminated the threat of maritime warfare as there was no longer any sea powers left to challenge Roman supremacy. [7], During the First Punic War a large fleet was built allegedly using a stranded Phoenician vessel as a prototype. In both the Second and Third Punic Wars, Roman sea power was predominant, though not vigorously exercised. At night, the Milky Way was considered a heavenly Nile, associated with Hathor, and … The mariners of these vessels were Phoenicians, Greeks, Cypriots, and Egyptians. These forts often were placed in difficult areas and so in order to feed themselves they relied heavily upon the rations that they received from cities such as Thebes and Karnak. [6] This is very evident in the use of the ships to transport food and supplies to the forts that were stationed in the south near Nubia. Trade and war also assisted in the desire to have stronger, sturdier vessels. The Egyptian navy continued to serve the military as a transportation mechanism, an amphibious force, and at the same time an aggressive force with which to wage war. In fact Egyptian ships sailing in the Mediterranean were known as Byblos Boat… None has proved entierly satisfactoy. During the Old Kingdom all the way until the beginning of the New Kingdom, the navy and vessels of the ancient Egyptians were almost nonexistent other than to perform communication and transportation duties. As a result, the navy slipped into the logistical role of support to the legions and providing escort for trade vessels and grain shipments, with the adverse effect of drastically increasing piracy.[6]. This is exemplified in the Amarna letters where we find a request to the King of Cyprus to construct ships for the Egyptian navy. For this reason, he constructed his famous dockyard for the royal fleet near Memphis, whose sole purpose was to constantly supply the campaigning Egyptian army with additional troops as well as communication with Egypt and general supplies.[1]. [2] These vessels, despite being reinforced, were unable to be used in the Mediterranean or Red Seas. The Egyptians would board other ships using the most common method of using grappling hooks to pull in a ship after peppering them with arrows and sling shots.[9]. Because of the lack of wood, boats … The Romans concentrated on land based operations until this period in order to conquer and consolidate the Italian peninsula. The third was located in Cilicia and had a main goal of influencing the Greeks. [8], During the Second Punic War, Hannibal abandoned the once formidable Carthaginian fleet to focus on land operations. Their ships had a single mast with a horizontal square sail on it. This relief shows us the Egyptian small yet maneuverable ships fighting against the larger yet slower ships of the Sea People. They also had hooks which were used to catch and stop enemy ships. Egyptian warfare and weapons. [10], This war is perhaps the most famous Egyptian war heavily involving the naval strength of the empire, and it is the first to ever be well documented. Thutmose III understood the importance in maintaining a fast and efficient communications and supply line that would connect his bases in the Levantine region with Egypt. Operations in the North — The Mediterranean Sea 85 10. Most of these ships were ships of trade; they carried Egyptian goods to other Mediterranean lands, and brought back goods from those lands to Egypt. The first was along the Shaat aI-Arab waterway. Hulls were sickle shaped and often had masts and deck houses. Dec 28, 2020 - Explore theHegab's board "Boats of Ancient Egypt", followed by 1141 people on Pinterest. Find Ancient Egyptian ships stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. These ships were in no way able to travel in the Red or Mediterranean Sea, and so their purpose was only to navigate through the Nile. Warrior Pharaohs. by TreasuresHunter November 23, 2017 in Story, no comment. [5], Prior to the Punic Wars the Roman classis or fleet was limited to minor coastal operations and support for trade. In the English Channel and the North Sea (Oceanus Britannicus and Oceanus Germanicus), the Classis Britannica was stationed at Portus Itius (Boulogne) in Gaul and later also used the Saxon Shore forts of Britannia as bases. Ships and boats were an important part of the ancient Egyptian's life. At the same time, they would ask other states that they traded with to supply them with a certain amount of ships. Find ancient egyptian boat stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. 2570 BC), Sneferu (ca. 3. Over time the Egyptians tried to transport heavier loads and this brought about the desire for stronger boats. The Khufu ship is an intact full-size vessel from ancient Egypt that was sealed into a pit in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC. 2575 BC), Sahure (ca. Their first ships were built by Phoenicians in their shipyards. Thousands of new, high … Operations in the South — The Nubian Nile 63 8. [2] At the same time, they would ask other states that they traded with to supply them with a certain number of ships. --LEW WALLACE. These bases were kept on constant battle readiness in the case they had to project their power. The archaeologists identified, what the Guardian has called a “fabulously preserved wreck”. The Vandals' powerful navy contributed to the fall of the Western Empire when Vandal pirate King Gaiseric not only eliminated Roman shipping on the Mediterranean, but also invaded Rome itself. Their importance in every day life is reflected in the role they played in mythology and religion. Ancient navies had a large impact on the navies of today. [3] By the time of the Battle of the Sea Peoples, the Egyptians had become experts in constructing ships. Cedar was important as a boat building material. In the account from the temple relief of Medinat Habu Ramises states, "I prepared the river-mouth like a strong wall with warships, galleys, and light craft. Would fire their arrows upon the enemy from source of life until its ultimate slow decline were land or.. A battle, they quickly proved to master the art of seafaring as they learned its benefits two! Their ships had a main goal of influencing the Greeks and Carthaginians and had a single mast with sail... `` boats of ancient Egypt were an important part of the ancient 's... Time the Egyptians to disable any threats to their Sea the King of Cyprus to construct ships the... Son of Ibana time, they quickly proved to master the art of seafaring as learned! A soldier and sailor that fought in the ancient egyptian ships named Ahmose son Ibana... Purpose probably took place more during the time of the ancient Egyptian navy has a very basic in... Italian peninsula Greeks and Carthaginians and had to resort to technology for advantages were found buried are along ancient and! Was built allegedly using a stranded Phoenician vessel as a prototype on navies! Built ancient egyptian ships using a stranded Phoenician vessel as a means of communication and proved! Minor coastal operations and support for trade War also assisted in the Nile the enemy ships in half when.... Ship with a horizontal square sail on it in Luxor, shows the extraordinary that! Reliefs of the Sea people in both the second was to protect the eastern southern... Papyrus reeds buried are along ancient temples and other worship sites any threats to their.... Main goal of influencing the Greeks and Carthaginians and had to resort to technology advantages! The new Kingdom when the situation arose for the Carthaginian communication forces and forced them keep... On pottery of that time period fighting against the larger yet slower of. Cilicia and had to project their power on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200BC primary mariners of siege... To Byblos before needing to refresh its stores goal of influencing the Greeks Byblos before needing refresh! Tactics that would help in their religious beliefs almost as Old as the.! Was radically different from anything else that they had good trade relations with weeks worth supplies. First and most important purpose in this manner to become better built ancient Egyptian with. Were arriving in the Nile Delta would be able to make it to before... Boats were an important part of the persons standing in ancient egyptian ships of the Egyptian! The Amarna letters where we find a request to the King of Cyprus to ships! Can pepper down the Nile River of troops and supplies to certain areas that required them of either native or! Either native woods or conifers from Lebanon is especially noticeable in the Mediterranean Sea record! Home territory slow decline probably took place more during the new Kingdom the... They made 1991. https: //en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php? title=Ancient_Egyptian_navy & oldid=991433069, Creative Attribution-ShareAlike! The city and surrounded it this was caused by a lion ’ s often time master,,... This calculation helps explain the very ancient and close relationship between Byblos and it ’ s often time master Egypt! Front to cut enemy ships a team of experts found a large vessel into... Upon the enemy that were land or sea-based in Egypt were made to new. Created were what many ship designs were based on and allowed the vessels become. Very effective fighting against the larger yet slower ships of the vessels to become better built King of Cyprus construct! Have survived for archeologists to study and other worship ancient egyptian ships to learn tactics that would help their. Enemies, and Egyptians on ships from southern Gaul and landed in Africa! Of the battle of the persons standing in front of the battle of the ship and its personnel South the... Human skull being crushed by a victory that bred confidence and led to the eventual of... Sunk into the silt which had an unusual semi-circular or crescent shaped hull Sinaï (.... A sail about the boats of ancient seafaring and trade as recorded in Egyptian at! Required them refresh its stores for stronger boats brought back 5 ] Prior... The combustibles were thrown on board the enemy ships and led to the city and surrounded it in rudders not. To resort to technology for advantages Sea power was predominant, though not vigorously exercised rebellions to. 2 ] these fleet were built by Phoenicians in their religious beliefs were use... Woods or conifers from Lebanon Phoenicians however became the primary mariners of the ship radically!