From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Leo I (Latin: Leo Primus; c. 400 – 10 November 461), also known as Leo the Great, was an Italian priest of the Roman Catholic Church and the 45th Pope from 29 September 440 to his death on 10 November 461. In his In Nativitate Domini, Christmas Day, sermon, "Christian, remember your dignity", Leo articulates a fundamental dignity common to all Christians, whether saints or sinners, and the consequent obligation to live up to it: Our Saviour, dearly-beloved, was born today: let us be glad. Leo did, however, assist in rebuilding the city of Rome, restoring key places such as Saint Peter's.[19]. About Pope Leo III: Rather than keeping the papacy independent of secular authorities, Leo deliberately took steps to ally with Charlemagne and his growing empire. The bishop of Rome had gradually become viewed as the chief patriarch in the Christian Church. If Christ were divine only, everything about him would be divine. He is also a Doctor of the Church, most remembered theologically for issuing the Tome of Leo, a document which was a major foundation to the debates of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon. Recollect that thou wert rescued from the power of darkness and brought out into God’s light and kingdom. This assertion is commonly referred to as the doctrine of Petrine supremacy. Leo's letters and sermons reflect the many aspects of his career and personality and are invaluable historical sources. Celebrate our Church family. [4], Manichaeans fleeing the Vandals had come to Rome in 439 and secretly organized there; Leo learned of it around 443, and proceeded against them by holding a public debate with their representatives, burning their books and writing letters of warning to the Italian bishops. Pope Leo I was born Leo, in 400 A.D., in Tuscany, Western Roman Empire. This page was last edited on February 18, 2016, at 02:29. By 431, as a deacon, he was sufficiently well known outside of Rome that John Cassian dedicated to him the treatise against Nestorius written at Leo's suggestion. His response to the call of the Lord transformed him into one of the greatest popes of Christian history. At the Council of Chalcedon, at which 630 bishops were present, a letter of Leo to the deceased St. Flavian, Patriarch of Constantinople (447-449), was read. Remember the Head and the Body of which thou art a member. Wherefore, as it is quite clear that these two seasons [Easter and Pentecost] of which we have been speaking are the rightful ones for baptizing the elect in Church, we admonish you, beloved, not to associate other days with this observance. Pope St. Leo the Great. FAQs, The Letters and Sermons of Leo the Great, Bishop of Rome, Leo died in the year 461. Pope Leo X died fairly suddenly of pneumonia at the age of 45 on 1 December 1521 and was buried in Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome. Pope St. Leo the Great died on Nov. 10, 461. About this time Cyril of Alexandria appealed to Rome regarding a jurisdictional dispute with Juvenal of Jerusalem, but it is not entirely clear whether the letter was intended for Leo, in his capacity of archdeacon,[3] or for Pope Celestine I directly. Patroclus of Arles (d. 426) had received from Pope Zosimus the recognition of a subordinate primacy over the Gallican Church which was strongly asserted by his successor Hilary of Arles. Johann Peter Kirsch sees this commission as a proof of the confidence placed in the able deacon by the Imperial Court. Leo was a significant contributor to the centralisation of spiritual authority within the Church and in reaffirming papal authority. Leo defends the true divinity and the true humanity of the one Christ against heretical one-sidedness. Why do we call Pope St. Leo “the Great”? In 446 he wrote to the Church in Mauretania in regard to a number of questions of discipline, stressing the point that laymen were not to be appointed to the episcopate.[5]. [16] Paul the Deacon, in the late 8th century, relates that an enormously huge man dressed in priestly robes and armed with a sword, visible only to Attila, threatened him and his army with death during his discourse with Leo, and this prompted Attila to submit to his request.[17]. Hans Feichtinger: Die Gegenwart Christi in der Kirche bei Leo dem Großen, Frankfurt 2007, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 20:06. "[1], He was a Roman aristocrat, and was the first pope to have been called "the Great". This is the true faith. Not much is known of St. Leo I’s life before his pontificate, but we know he was a deacon of the Church in Rome and was sent on a diplomatic mission to Gaul (modern-day France). Alois Grillmeier: "Christ in Christian Tradition", vols. These are the things Dioscorus hid away. [4], During his absence in Gaul, Pope Sixtus III died (11 August 440), and on 29 September Leo was unanimously elected by the people to succeed him. The Emperor refused to surrender Honoria, and it is not recorded that money was paid. Feeling that the primatial rights of the bishop of Rome were threatened, Leo appealed to the civil power for support and obtained, from Valentinian III, a decree of 6 June 445, which recognized the primacy of the bishop of Rome based on the merits of Peter, the dignity of the city, and the legislation of the First Council of Nicaea; and provided for the forcible extradition by provincial governors of any bishop who refused to answer a summons to Rome. Pope Leo the Great held the Chair of St. Peter from 440 to 461, and from it proclaimed and projected the elect holiness of Rome, calling it a royal city and, by virtue of the See of St. Peter, the head of the world, ruling by moral faith and religion rather than military force and dominion. He takes up this topic also in many of his sermons, and over the years, he further develops his own original concepts. Basil Studer: Art. Leo I (c. 400 – 10 November 461), also known as Leo the Great, was Bishop of Rome from 29 September 440 until his death. These were difficult times for the Church, when heretics assaulted Orthodoxy with their false teachings. Besides, the whereabouts of Aëtius at that time are unknown, and Attila or his warriors may have felt endangered by their arch-enemy from the Catalaunian plains. THE DOCTORS OF THE CHURCH - POPE ST. LEO THE GREAT DVD Come face-to-face with the saints who shaped the Church into what it is today. Failure to stem the Reformation So taught the Apostles. Christ, however, always comes out as the source of all grace and authority, and Leo is responsible to him for how he fulfilled his duties (sermon 1). Piously and truly did Leo teach, so taught Cyril. About Pope St. Leo the Great. Let us put off then the old man with his deeds: and having obtained a share in the birth of Christ let us renounce the works of the flesh. Pin. Christian, acknowledge thy dignity, and becoming a partner in the Divine nature, refuse to return to the old baseness by degenerate conduct. At the Second Council of Ephesus in 449, Leo's representatives delivered his famous Tome, a statement of the faith of the Roman Church in the form of a letter addressed to Archbishop Flavian of Constantinople, which repeats, in close adherence to Augustine of Hippo, the formulas of western Christology. Pope Leo is one of them. Pope St. Leo the Great, Letter 16, Oct. 21, 447, #6: “In a case of necessity any time is allowable for baptism. The Council of Chalcedon of 451 rejected the heresy of Eutyches who denied the true human nature of the Son of God, and affirmed the union in his one Person, without confusion and without separation, of his two natures, human and divine. In 455, Leo confronted the Vandal leader Genseric during an attack on Rome, and obtained a guarantee of safety for many of his people and the churches where they were hiding. But we are at a loss to know what considerations were offered him to induce him to depart. That is one reason that the council was never recognized as ecumenical and was later repudiated by the Council of Chalcedon. Bury remarked: The fact of the embassy cannot be doubted. Leo’s pontificate, next to that of St. Gregory I, is the most significant and important in Christian antiquity. Pope Innocent I had constituted the metropolitan of Thessalonica his vicar, in order to oppose the growing influence of the patriarch of Constantinople in the area. You may also like. Leo was born in Tuscany in Italy around the year 400 and served as an advisor and diplomat for two popes. Leo drew many learned men about him and chose Prosper of Aquitaine to act in some secretarial or notarial capacity. "Leo the Great", in: A. DiBerardino: "Patrology IV", Westminster ML 1994, pp. Again in the year 455, when the Henzerich, the leader of the Germanic tribe of Vandals, turned towards Rome, Leo persuaded him not to pillage the city, burn buildings, nor spill blood. The acts of the council report: "After the reading of the foregoing epistle, the most reverend bishops cried out: This is the faith of the fathers, this is the faith of the Apostles. Pope St. Leo the Great was born around the year 400. All the bishops present at the Council were in agreement with this teaching, and so the heretics Eutyches and Dioscorus were excommunicated from the Church. Butler, Alban. Many sources claim that he belonged to a wealthy and aristocratic Roman family. A trustworthy chronicle hands down another account which does not conflict with the fact that an embassy was sent, but evidently furnishes the true reasons which moved Attila to receive it favourably. "St. Leo the Great, Pope", Kirsch, Johann Peter. Peter participates in everything which is Christ's; what the other apostles have in common with him they have through him. "Leo the Great" redirects here. J. The Eastern Catholic Churches as well as the Eastern Orthodox Church celebrate Saint Leo on 18 February. 589–612. Let the saint exult in that he draws near to victory. The pope may have offered Attila a large sum of gold or Attila may have had logistical and strategic concerns: an army probably laden with booty from plunder; a plague in northern Italy; food shortages; military actions of the Eastern Emperor Marcianus on the Danube frontier. Leo I (c. 400 – 10 November 461), also known as Leo the Great, was Bishop of Rome from 29 September 440 until his death. Eutyches, in the beginning of the conflict, appealed to Leo and took refuge with him on his condemnation by Flavian, but on receiving full information from Flavian, Leo took his side decisively. [2], According to the Liber Pontificalis, he was a native of Tuscany. This page has been accessed 54,273 times. "Extracts from the Acts: Session II (cont. Leo combined pastoral attentiveness with uncompromising firmness in the confession of the Faith. You can use this novena to seek intercession from this holy Pope in your life! Tweet. He became a deacon and occupied a important position with St. Cyril of Alexandria. The fact that the African province of Mauretania Caesariensis had been preserved to the empire and thus to the Nicene faith during the Vandal invasion and, in its isolation, was disposed to rest on outside support, gave Leo an opportunity to assert his authority there. In 445, Leo disputed with Patriarch Dioscorus, Cyril of Alexandria's successor as Patriarch of Alexandria, insisting that the ecclesiastical practice of his see should follow that of Rome on the basis that Mark the Evangelist, the disciple of Peter the Apostle and the founder of the Alexandrian Church, could have had no other tradition than that of the prince of the apostles. He was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by Pope … "[9][10][11], Leo firmly declined to confirm their disciplinary arrangements, which seemed to allow Constantinople a practically equal authority with Rome and regarded the civil importance of a city as a determining factor in its ecclesiastical position; but he strongly supported its dogmatic decrees, especially when, after the accession of Leo I the Thracian (457), there seemed to be a disposition toward compromise with the Eutychians. It was presented again at the subsequent Council of Chalcedon as offering a solution to the Christological controversies still raging between East and West.[8]. In fact, he was the first pope to be given the title "the Great." Holding office in the late fifth century, Pope Leo I was the first to be called the “Great”—and for good reason. Saint Leo the Great, also known as Pope Saint Leo I, was born into a Roman aristocratic family. He was still a deacon when he was elected pope. Saint Leo the Great, also known as Pope Saint Leo I, was born into a Roman aristocratic family. Leo demanded of the emperor that an ecumenical council should be held in Italy, and in the meantime, at a Roman synod in October 449, repudiated all the decisions of the "Robber Synod". The Pope and members of his clergy, went to meet the invader to implore him to desist. In Leo's eyes the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon acquired their validity from his confirmation. Subsequently, through numerous letters addressed to bishops and members of the imperial family, Leo incessantly worked for the propagation and universal reception of the faith in Christ as defined by Chalcedon, also in the eastern part of the Roman empire. Pope St. Leo the Great is well-known for issuing a tome of theological writings and for persuading Attila the Hun to abandon an attack on Italy. "Pope St. Leo I (the Great)." While there, news reached Leo that Pope Sixtus III had died and Leo had been elected to replace him. The following year, Leo led a delegation to negotiate with the barbarian king Attila, successfully preventing an invasion of Rome. The distinguished ambassadors visited the Hun's camp near the south shore of Lake Garda. The nucleus of Christianity would be destroyed. Near the end of the reign of Pope Sixtus III, Leo was dispatched at the request of Emperor Valentinian III to settle a dispute between Aëtius, one of Gaul's chief military commanders, and the chief magistrate Caecina Decius Aginatius Albinus. The question of Honoria was left unsettled, and he threatened that he would come again and do worse things in Italy unless she were given up with the due portion of the Imperial possessions.[18]. Share 30. His literary and theological legacy is comprised of 96 sermons and 143 letters, of which the best known is his Epistle to St. Flavian. For the emperor, see, Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana), p. 107, Pope Benedict XVI, "Saint Leo the Great", General Audience, 5 March 2008, Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Writing in the early 20th century, John B. Every other bishop is charged with the care of his particular flock, the Roman pontiff with that of the whole Church. He became an archdeacon under Pope Sixtus III, after whose death Leo was unanimously elected Bishopof Rome. Watch this video from Dr. Taylor Marshall with the Top 10 things to know about him. His attitude was as decided against the Priscillianists. Leo’s pontificate was marked by a number of firsts: He was the first Pope named Leo, and the first Pope to be remembered as “the Great” (later, Gregory I and Nicholas I would also be accorded the honour). Leo was born in AD 400 in Tuscany, Italy. It was followed by a major schism associated with Monophysitism, Miaphysitism and Dyophysitism. In 452, by the persuasive power of his words, he stopped Attila the Hun from pillaging Italy. [23] Some traditionalist Catholics continue to observe pre-1970 versions of that calendar. Explore through historical reenactments and expert commentary, the lives of the courageous men and women, who stood firm in their faith against all odds. [citation needed], After the undecisive outcome at the Battle of Chalons in 451, Attila invaded Italy in 452, sacking cities such as Aquileia and heading for Rome. For there is no proper place for sadness, when we keep the birthday of the Life, which destroys the fear of mortality and brings to us the joy of promised eternity. Bishop Turibius of Astorga, astonished at the spread of the sect in Spain, had addressed the other Spanish bishops on the subject, sending a copy of his letter to Leo, who took the opportunity to write an extended treatise (21 July 447) against the sect, examining its false teaching in detail and calling for a Spanish general council to investigate whether it had any adherents in the episcopate. He further associated the practice of fasting with charity and almsgiving particularly on the occasion of the Quattro tempora, (the quarterly Ember days).[3]. Pope St. Leo the Great died on Nov. 10, 461. Pope Benedict XVI said that Leo's papacy "was undoubtedly one of the most important in the Church's history. But whatever terms were arranged, he did not pretend that they meant a permanent peace. [5], From a pastoral perspective, he galvanized charitable works in a Rome beset by famines, an influx of refugees, and poverty. What is true of Peter is true also of his successors. [20], Leo died on 10 November 461 and, as he wished to be buried as close as possible to the tomb of St Peter, his body was placed in a tomb in the portico of Saint Peter's basilica. To Leo the Great, Mariology is determined by Christology. Start studying Pope St. Leo the Great. Nov 10 – St Leo the Great, (1) pope and doctor of the Church (400-461) 10 November, 2012 . [15] Another near-contemporary was the historian Priscus who records that Attila was dissuaded from attacking Rome by his own men because they feared he would share the fate of the Visigothic king Alaric, who died shortly after sacking the city in 410.

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