nadph + nad + nadp + + nadh NADH and NADPH are water-soluble electron carriers that associate reuersibly with dehydrogenases. Photosynthesis is the process of conversion of light energy into chemical energy which can then be utilized by living organisms. Both the NAD and FAD are both electron carriers.Main difference seen between the two is in accepting the hydrogen atoms. NADH will deliver the hydrogens and electrons it picks up to process that make ATP. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. The anaerobic photosynthetic bacteria use light energy but do not have the light reactions as in plants and produce no oxygen. This molecule plays a crucial role in some of the chemical reactions that make up the process of photosynthesis. Both NAD + and NADP + are adenine nucleotides involved in the transfer of electrons between redox reactions. Glucose is the end product. Its reduced form is NADP. Glucose is the end product. It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast. This energy helps the plant to grow. NADPH donates the hydrogen (H) and associated electrons, oxidizing the molecule to create NADP+. Here, the electrons combine with the protons – H+ which is produced by splitting up of the water molecule and reduces NADP to NADPH2. NADP+ is a coenzyme that functions as a universal electron carrier, accepting electrons and hydrogen atoms to form NADPH, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Which part of the male reproductive system store the sperm? Overview and Key Difference 2. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NADPH) is also a coenzyme that involves anabolic reactions. This chemical occurs naturally in the body and plays a role in the chemical process that generates energy. In contrast, NADP is mainly existed in the reduced state, which will lead reductive reactions in biosynthesis. NADP+ is a coenzyme that functions as a universal electron carrier, accepting electrons and hydrogen atoms to form NADPH, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. This chemical occurs naturally in the body and plays a role in the chemical process that generates energy. Glucose is produced. Coenzyme A has a complex structure consisting of an adenosine triphosphate, a pantothenic acid which is a B-vitamin and cysteamine. Cellular respirationis the process of utilizing oxygen and food molecules to create energy, carbon dioxide, water, and waste products. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is one of the most important coenzymes in the cell. Biology, Microbiology, Enzymes, Coenzymes, Structure and Function of Coenzymes. Also Read: Photosynthesis. NAD+ is a key co-enzyme that the mitochondria in every cell of our bodies depend on to fuel all basic functions. It works as a reducing agent in lipid and nucleic acid synthesis. Electron Carrier – Molecules uses as intermediates in the transfer of electrons in biological pathways. But watch out; many NAD supplements are full of artificial ingredients and fillers, and some may not actually contain what’s listed on the bottle. One nucleotide contains an adenine nucleobase and the other nicotinamide.NAD exists in two forms: an oxidized and reduced form, abbreviated as NAD + and NADH (H for hydrogen) respectively. The H-accepting positions are shown in Fig. NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) and NADP (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) are the most abundant types of coenzymes inside the cell, which are used as electron and hydrogen carriers.NADH and NADPH are the reduced forms of NAD and NADP, respectively.Though NADH and NADPH are structurally more similar, they differ by their … glucose. power (ex: NAD and NADP) • 2 electron, 1 proton carriers • cosubstrates: diffuse between different enzymes • NAD: primarily used in catabolism • NADP: primarily used in anabolism. Share Your PPT File. TOS4. The structures of TPP and ‘active’ acetaldehyde are shown in Fig. Difference Between Cyclic and Non Cyclic Photophosphorylation Photosynthesis is the process of producing carbohydrates by green plants using CO2 and H2O in the presence of sunlight. In such reactions biotin acts as the carrier of CO2. What is the significance of transpiration? In this article we will discuss about the structure and function of various coenzymes. The structures of some of these compounds are shown in Fig. The reaction is shown in a simplified way (Fig. FAD can accommodate two hydrogens whereas NAD accepts just one hydrogen. Electron Carrier – Molecules uses as intermediates in the transfer of electrons in biological pathways. Other Molecules having Coenzyme Function: The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. NADP :- nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate. PAM can react with a keto acid to produce an amino acid. Select the correct answer and click on the “Finish” buttonCheck your score and answers at the end of the quiz, Visit BYJU’S for all Biology related queries and study materials, Your email address will not be published. 1. NADPH donates the hydrogen (H) and associated electrons, oxidizing the molecule to create NADP+. Found in all living cells, NAD is called a dinucleotide because it consists of two nucleotides joined through their phosphate groups. Learn more about Cyclic and Non Cyclic Photophosphorylation at Vedantu.com and regisiter for Online Home Tuition with India's Best Teachers. Instead, we'll be focusing on two comp… Electrons from Photosystem I am accepted by NADP and it does not return back. The hydrogen accepted by FAD is transferred to the electron transport chain for generation of ATP. In general, NAD takes part in the catabolic reactions, which NADP in synthetic pathway reactions. An example of a reaction involving THF is conversion of homocysteine to methionine. NADP+ is created in anabolic reactions, or reaction that build large molecules from small molecules. But watch out; many NAD supplements are full of artificial ingredients and fillers, and some may not actually contain what’s listed on the bottle. Following are the important difference between cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation: Cyclic Photophosphorylation: Non-Cyclic Photophosphorylation: Only … Dark reaction is also called carbon-fixing reaction. The coenzyme parts of these flavoproteins contain the B-vitamin, riboflavin. 1. The main difference between apoenzyme and holoenzyme is … CONTENTS 1. It is a two-step process light reaction and dark reaction Enzymes exist in our cells that can remove a phosphate from ATP and attach it to a different molecule-usually a protein (See Figure 3). Succinic acid is oxidized to fumaric acid by the enzyme. An enzyme only becomes active when the cell needs to perform the biochemical reaction catalyzed by that particular enzyme. 1. Biotin is bound to enzymes involved in carboxylation reactions. 2. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! The structures are shown in Fig. Which molecule controls the rate of the pentose phosphate pathway? Start studying 4.4.4 The Difference Between Cofactors and Coenzymes. Careful calibration and quality control is required because of instability of co-factors, particularly ATP, NAD +, and NADP +, in solution. What are the factors which induce heart failure? Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor central to metabolism. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is a cofactor central to metabolism. NADH stands for "nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + hydrogen (H)." Future investigation into the metabolism and biological functions of NAD and NADP may expose fundamental properties of life, and suggest new strategies for treating diseases and slowing the aging process. One of the hydrogen ions is included in the structure of NADPH, while the other is released as a product of reaction. Following are the important difference between cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation: FMN and FAD, commonly called flavoproteins, are also hydrogen transferring coenzymes associated with hydrogenases. NADH acts as a diffusible carrier, transporting the electrons derived from catabolic reactions to their point of entry into the respiratory chain, the NADH dehydrogenase complex described below. This energy is converted into energy molecules ATP and NADPH by using PS I and PS II. It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast. NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+, meaning that the latter features an extra hydrogen ion in its chemical structure. This is the difference between NAD and NADP. Coenzymes: Meaning and Classification | Enzymes, Sterilization of Bacteria: Top 4 Methods | Microbiology. Choosing the best NAD supplement is … When the light hits, chlorophyll a get excited to higher energy state followed by a series of reactions. Both NAD and NADP are structurally similar but, NADP contains a phosphate group. Start studying differences between NADPH and NADH. 4. Privacy Policy3. When it is transferred to a protein, this energy can be used to do something… Put your understanding of this concept to test by answering a few MCQs. This molecule is typically at a lower concentration than its counterpart NADPH, which favors the release of the hydrogen and electron from … The substrate is thereby oxidized. Co2 is utilized in the dark reaction. 8.38: Lipoic acid is involved in oxidative decarboxylation reactions, such as those catalysed by pyruvic decarboxylase or α-keto glutarate decarboxylase. The reactions catalysed by transaminases can be represented in a simple way as shown in Fig. Two examples are cited below, one of reduction and the other or oxidation: Lactic acid is oxidized to pyruvic acid where NAD acts as H-acceptor. Example of NADP catalysed reacted are glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glutamic acid dehydrogenase etc. A. NaDP+/NaDPH B. ribose-5-phosphate C. glucose D. ADP/ATP E. NAD+/NADH Therefore, it is known as the dark reaction. It is a light-independent process in which sugar molecules are formed from the carbon dioxide and water molecules. Content Guidelines 2. The methyl group of methionine is added from methyl-THF. Catabolic Reaction – A reaction which releases the energy from the bonds of large molecules and stores them in electron carriers. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are derivatives of the B-vitamin, nicotinic acid. It is known as the energy currency of life (in all organisms including bacteria to humans) and its … Another THF mediated reaction is conversion of serine to glycine where the hydroxy-methyl group of serine is removed by THF. NADH is the reduced version of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which is essentially a co-enzyme form of niacin (vitamin B3), present in all living cells. The only difference between NAD and NADP is only of single P. i.e. … What is ATP? 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Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are derivatives of the B-vitamin, nicotinic acid. The NAD coenzyme acts as a hydrogen acceptor in oxidation-reduction reactions. Difference between Light and Dark Reaction – Learn how these two processes vary from each other Photosynthesis is the process of conversion of light energy into chemical energy which can then be utilized by living organisms. ATP and NADPH help in the formation of glucose. Answer Now and help others. 8.36: The aldehyde group of PAL is the reactive group of the coenzyme which binds to the amino acid forming a Schiff s base. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + /NADH) is the most common mobile electron carrier used in catabolism. The whole process of photosynthesis takes place within the chloroplast. The phosphates in this molecule can supply energy to substrates in our cells. We’ll explain the differences between these two forms and how … Click ‘Start Quiz’ to begin! Anabolic Reaction – A reaction which uses small monomers to build large polymer molecules. The hydrogen of NADPH combines with CO2. The first substrate for energy production is glyceraldehyde‐3‐phosphate, which reacts with ADP, inorganic phosphate, and NAD in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme glyceraldehyde‐3‐phosphate dehydrogenase: This phase is the. That plus sign matters, though, because the term NAD is used to collectively refer to the different forms of NAD: the molecules NAD+ and NADH. ATP and NADPH help in the formation of glucose. 3. 4. the phosphate group which is attached to NAD. In order for NADP+ to transform into NADPH, the former requires two electrons and two hydrogen ions. But sometimes it’s referred to, colloquially, as just NAD (no plus), despite the little plus sign after it. This molecule plays a crucial role in some of the chemical reactions that make up the process of photosynthesis.NADPH is a product of the first stage of photosynthesis and is used to help fuel the reactions that take place in the second stage of photosynthesis. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) is a coenzyme present in biological systems. The structures of PAL and PAM are shown in Fig. Plants make ATP from other sources such as metal ions and turn carbon dioxide into glucose. The structures are shown in Fig. An enzyme reaction transfers the electrons from the protein to NADP + that forms NADPH (which has high chemical energy due to the energy of the electrons). Healthy bodies make all the NADH they need using vitamin B3 (also known as niacin, or nicotinamide) as a starting point. 8.30: NAD and NADP act as conezymes for many degydrogenases where they are involved in transfer of hydrogen, causing either oxidation or reduction of the substrates. Summary. The energy‐yielding steps of glycolysis involve reactions of 3‐carbon compounds to yield ATP and reducing equivalents as NADH. Photosystem I absorbs light at a wavelength of 700 nm, whereas Photosystem II absorbs light at a wavelength of 680 nm. The phosphates in this molecule can supply energy to substrates in our cells. Main Difference – Apoenzyme vs Holoenzyme. NADH is the abbreviation for the naturally occurring biological substance, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydride. Cobalamine or vitamin B12 is a cobalt-containing complex molecule composed of 63 carbon atoms, a tetrapyrole ring system and a nucleotide. It is a two-step process light reaction and dark reaction (3,4)NAD+ play a key role in communicating between our cells nucleus and the Mitochondria that power all activity in our cells (5,6,7)Scientists have now confirmed a direct link between falling NAD+ levels and aging in both animal and in human subjects. As stated above, photosynthesis occurs in two phases – light reaction and dark reaction. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. NADPH stands for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen. 2. What is the end product of the dark reaction? The photosystem is the arrangement of pigments, including chlorophyll within thylakoids. The “H” stands for high-energy hydrogen and indicates that this substance is in the most biologically active form possible. FAD/ FADH2 NAD supplements are available everywhere from online retailers to your local convenience store. NADP+ is created in anabolic reactions, or reaction that build large molecules from small molecules. Our NAD supplements are absolutely packed with NAD goodness as well as a blend of other … The light reaction occurs in the thylakoids of the chloroplast. Following are the important differences between light and dark reaction: It takes place only in the presence of light. One of the hydrogen ions is included in the structure of NADPH, while the other is released as a product of reaction. Also, hydrolysis occurs and releases oxygen. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is one of the most important coenzymes in the cell. It occurs during the day, but the reaction does not use the light directly. Your email address will not be published. NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+, meaning that the latter features an extra hydrogen ion in its chemical structure. When this happens, we say that the protein has been phosphorylated. All these NAD+, NADH and NADPH are important co-factors in biological reactions. We will not be going into any great detail on these three phases here. It’s up to your choice of either NAD or NADP as the cosubstrate will not just make affect the turnover rate of a redox reaction but also its a combination of free energy (ΔG). Respiration consists of three separate metabolic phases: glycolysis, the Krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain. 8.30: NAD and NADP act as conezymes for many degydrogenases where they are involved in transfer of hydrogen, causing either oxidation or reduction of the substrates. NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+, meaning that the latter features an extra hydrogen ion in its chemical structure. Abstract. Difference Between Cyclic and Non Cyclic Photophosphorylation Photosynthesis is the process of producing carbohydrates by green plants using CO2 and H2O in the presence of sunlight. When it is transferred to a protein, this energy can be used to do something… It is a rather complex process which is carried out through various stages. NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FADH2 (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) are two main coenzymes utilized in almost all biochemical pathways. (3,4)NAD+ play a key role in communicating between our cells nucleus and the Mitochondria that power all activity in our cells (5,6,7)Scientists have now confirmed a direct link between falling NAD+ levels and aging in both animal and in human subjects. Electrons then move suddenly from donor to acceptor through an electron transport chain. The light reaction takes place in the thylakoid membranes. Here, the electrons combine with the protons – H+ which is produced by splitting up of the water molecule and reduces NADP to NADPH2. 8.34: An example of an enzyme complex involving TPP, lipoic acid and coenzyme A is the pyruvate decarboxylase. As a result they cannot be separated by dialysis. NAD+ accepts a hydride ion to become NADH. Cells use a molecule called Adenosine Triphosphate(or ATP) as an energy source (See figure 2). Pyridoxal phosphate has a simple molecule containing the B-vitamin, pyridoxine. The sulfhydryl (-SH) group of cysteamine moiety of this coenzyme forms a thioester with the carboxyl (-COOH) group of the acyl-compound, such as acetic acid to produce acetyl-CoA which is one of the most important CoA derivatives. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments. In the dark reaction, plants use carbon dioxide with ATP and NADPH from the light reactions to produce glucose. The end products of the light reaction are ATP and NADPH, also known as assimilatory powers. What is ADP 4. Only NADH is produced during glycolysis b. The key difference between ATP and ADP is the number of phosphate groups they contain. Experiments were conducted with a 34-kDa ferredoxin-NADP + reductase homologous to the chloroplast enzyme and a … No, the dark reaction does not occur at night. The thiazole group of the coenzyme molecule accepts the aldehyde group and transfers it to an acceptor via other coenzymes, like lipoic acid and coenzyme A. TPP is involved in oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvic acid and α-ketoglutaric acid. Side by Side Comparison – ATP vs ADP 5. Tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) acts as coenzyme for enzymes involved in transfer of one-carbon fragments, like formyl, methyl and methenyl groups. Where are the pollen grains formed in the flower? In this transfer process, PAL acts as the acceptor of the amino group and is converted to pyridoxamine phosphate (PAM). NAD and NADP act as conezymes for many degydrogenases where they are involved in transfer of hydrogen, causing either oxidation or reduction of the substrates. The coenzyme is involved in transfer of acyl-groups. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are derivatives of the B-vitamin, nicotinic acid. What is the difference between light and dark reaction? PAL and PAM remain bound to the protein part of the transaminase enzyme during these transfer of amino group. The structures of riboflavin, FMN and FAD are shown in Fig. In the absence of NADP +, differential absorption spectra support the existence of a high affinity complex between oxidized ferredoxin and semireduced ferredoxin-NADP + reductase. ATP is the most important molecule which acts as the universal energy currency of the cell. NADP is simply NAD with a third phosphate group attached as shown at the bottom of the figure. The enzyme is present in all livings organisms including plants. 1. A. NaDP+/NaDPH B. ribose-5-phosphate C. glucose D. ADP/ATP E. NAD+/NADH The light reaction is the initial stage of photosynthesis which traps light energy to produce ATP and NADPH, whereas dark reaction is the second step of photosynthesis which utilizes the energy from ATP and NADPH to produce glucose. 8.32. This molecule is typically at a lower concentration than its counterpart NADPH, which favors the release of the hydrogen and electron from … Cells use a molecule called Adenosine Triphosphate(or ATP) as an energy source (See figure 2). The key difference between ATP and NADPH is that the ATP is the energy currency of many of the living organisms while the NADPH is the typical coenzyme used for the reduction reactions of anabolic processes seen in plants. Key Difference – NADH vs FADH2 A coenzyme is an organic non-protein molecule which is relatively small in size and has the ability to carry chemical groups between enzymes and act as an electron carrier. NAD is the reduced form of NAD +. Share Your PDF File Healthy bodies make all the NADH they need using vitamin B3 … For more details on light reaction, dark reaction and the difference between light and dark reaction, keep visiting BYJU’S or download the BYJU’S app for further reference. Richard C. Leegood, Robert P. Walker, in C4 Plant Biology, 1999. AddThis. Also Read: Cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation. 8.33: TPP is a coenzyme involved in transfer of aldehyde (—C—H) groups, like acetaldehyde and glycol aldehyde. NADH stands for "nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + hydrogen (H)." 8.36. Not surprisingly, NAD and the closely related NADP are the two most abundant cofactors in eukaryotic cell. It takes place in the grana of the chloroplast. It contains thiamine, a vitamin of B-group. In general, cells try to maintain a balance or constant ratio between NADH and NAD +; when this ratio becomes unbalanced, the cell compensates by modulating other reactions to compensate. NADH – An analog of NADPH lacking a phosphate group, which functions in catabolic reactions. NAD+, or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, is a coenzyme found in every single living cell. Difference between Light and Dark Reaction – Learn how these two processes vary from each other: ... NADP utilizes H+ ions to form NADPH.